China will continue its military reform so that by 2027, which will mark the centennial of the founding of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), Beijing will achieve its intended goal of having a world-class armed force, Chinese President Xi Jinping said.
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“Achieving the goal of a hundred-year struggle to build an army within the scheduled time frame and accelerate the transformation of the People’s Liberation Army of China is a strategic requirement for the comprehensive construction of a modern socialist state,” Xi said on Sunday, at the opening of the 20th Congress of the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
He stressed that it is necessary to boost China’s strategic capabilities to protect state sovereignty, security, and development interests.
China opposes any form of hegemony and power politics, Beijing will never apply such a policy and engage in expansion, the president said.
“China firmly pursues an independent, peaceful foreign policy, has always determined its position and policy relying on the reliability of facts… China will never exercise hegemony and expansion,” Xi said.
The 20th Congress of the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP) opened on Sunday at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. A total of 2,296 delegates have arrived in Beijing from across China to participate in the key week-long event that will wrap up on October 22.
The delegates will determine the future course of the country’s development, approving the national policy for the next five years, and will appoint the CCP’s top leadership.
Xi Jinping is expected to be nominated for a third five-year term as CCP’s General Secretary and chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC).
Xi Jinping Set For 3rd Term
The Communist Party of China is preparing for this month’s National Congress, which will decide on the third term of President Xi Jinping.
There is a mixed opinion among analysts about the achievements of the decade-long regime of President Xi. On the positive side, China’s economic growth and investments stand out conspicuously in some regions like Latin America, Middle Eastern, and African countries.
But on the negative side, we find her faced with severe problems from advanced economies like Japan, South Korea, the United States, and Australia.
Among much-debated subjects is China’s chaotic handling of Covid-19 in Wuhan in late 2019, which took the entire world in its grip, aggressive foreign policy, particularly concerning the Sino-Indian border in Ladakh, trade war with the US, and military build-up in the South China Sea.
The Pew Survey reported that the opinion of those in the US who had an unfavorable idea about China in 2020 was 79%, which jumped to 80% in 2022. In South Korea, 87% said they had no confidence in Xi to do the right thing in world affairs. In the UK, the opinion in 2014 was 44%, which jumped to 70% in 2022.
The overall shortfall in China’s performance has led specialists to conclude that China’s handling of world affairs is not a feather to embellish its crown.
China’s aggressive postures toward the smaller countries along the South China Sea rim, and frequent forays of her vessels in the waters of the Indian Ocean under the pretext of containing piracy, have led to an arms race in the region with new strategic alliances reshaping the nations. Quad is an example.
India, a partner in Quad, has launched its aircraft carrier and is now engaged in building its third aircraft carrier, 75% bigger in size than INS Vikrant launched recently.
As a consequence of rivalry for the domination of the Indian Ocean, China is strengthening its sub-continental proxy, namely Pakistan. Recently, Beijing handed over the largest and most modern warship to Pakistan. The two countries have agreed to bolster Pakistan’s Navy, which has already received China-made submarines.
20th National Congress Of CCP
The 20th National Congress of the CCP will begin its week-long deliberations on October 16. The 2,000 members of the body will meet to select the new faces for the party’s Central Committee.
From this Central Committee, a 25-member Politburo will be formed, which throws up a seven-member Politburo Standing Committee. This is the most powerful organ whose business is to select government office bearers.
Usually, the time for holding the National Congress meeting, which ultimately decides on leadership change, is the month of November. Much lobbying and canvassing occur on the eve of the session of Congress.
Observers think that preponing the Congress to mid-October indicates that Xi is confident of a solid vote in favor of his extension. Lin Li, a Chinese political law expert at the University of Vienna, argues that if Xi were not confident of his third term, he would not have favored preponing of the Congress.
The announcement of a date for the Congress means that vital decisions have also been unanimously made, and formalities remain to be completed.
It has to be recalled that the state-run China Daily commented in its issue of August 30 that “the Congress will focus on the CCP’s work over the past five years, major achievements, and valuable experiences of the party’s Central Committee with Xi Jinping at the core.
This is precisely the phraseology used by Premier Li Keqiang. By removing the limit for the presidential term in 2018, Xi concentrated his attention on grabbing the unprecedented third term in office. Two Presidents preceding him had both quit the post after completing two terms.
Following the standing rules, several members of the Politburo Standing Committee are expected to step down. The rules say that officials aged 68 and older will retire at the next Congress. Those aged 67 or younger can be promoted to remain in the top position. The retirement of several members opens space for pro-Xi candidates.
However, Ling Li from the University of Vienna wrote in a paper on ThinkChina that “the makeup of the CCP’s top leadership organ will be mostly based on the extent to which Xi Jinping is willing and able to break or change the age limit rule.”
Regardless of the extent to which the age limit is to be held, set aside, or changed, the new PSC needs to bring in one or two younger members who can continue to sit in the PSC in 2027 to allow staggered leadership transition then, she wrote.
Who could be the next Premier is also an important question. The criteria for choosing the next Premier is the prerogative of President Xi.
In March, the sitting premier Li Keqiang announced that he would step down in a year. But to help recover economic performance and reduce high youth unemployment, Li has become more active. Some circles think he may try to challenge Xi.
But it seems that the plea of Li may not succeed. China’s State Council handles economic and social issues, and Li’s role is normal.
Two names making rounds for the position of Premier are Vice Premier Hu Chunhua and Wang Yang, chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference National Committee, as the possible candidates.
Wang Yang has worked with Xi and won his confidence as well. He has been handling issues related to Taiwan, Xinjiang, and Tibet and stands a fair chance to become the next Premier.
In the final analysis, they are clear signs for Xi to grab the third term, which is very exceptional in the history of China.
Patricia Thornton, an associate Professor of Chinese at Oxford University, told an interviewer, “I don’t see anyone or anything emerging that could or would challenge Xi, either before or at the 20th party congress. And because those moving up into the top positions will be Xi supporters, (it will bar) an unforeseen crisis event.”
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- Padma Shri KN Pandita is the former Director of the Centre of Central Asian Studies, Kashmir University.
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