The Kashmir dispute has its roots from the year 1947. The partition of the nation along religious lines resulted in the formation of India and Pakistan. However, there remained the issue of over 650 states, run by princes, existing within the two newly independent countries. Basically, these states had the option of choosing which country to join, or of remaining independent. The people were already fighting for freedom from British rule, and with their struggle about the end, they were not willing to let the princes fill the vacuum. Although many princes wanted to be “independent”, which meant no democracy for the people, they had to surrender to their people’s protests which turned violent in many areas
Because of its location, Kashmir had the option to choose India or Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir at that time, was Hindu. He was unable to take any decision which nation Kashmir should join, Hari Singh chose to remain neutral. But his waves of being independent got drained in October 1947, as Pakistan sent in Muslim tribesmen who were knocking at the gates of the capital Srinagar. Hari Singh requested the Indian government for military assistance and came to India. He signed the Instrument of Accession, surrendering Kashmir to India on October 26. Indian and Pakistani forces thus fought their first war over Kashmir in 1947-48. India highlighted the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January. In an agreement dated August 13, 1948, the UN asked Pakistan to take away its forces, after which India was also asked to withdraw the bulk of its forces.
Once this happened, a “free and fair” survey was supposed to be held to allow the Kashmiri people to decide their future. India, having taken the issue to the UN, was confident of winning a referendum, since the most influential Kashmiri mass leader, Sheikh Abdullah, was firmly on its side. An emergency government was formed on October 30, 1948, with Sheikh Abdullah as the Prime Minister. Pakistan ignored the UN mandate and continued fighting, holding onto the portion of Kashmir under its control. On January 1, 1949, a ceasefire was agreed, with 65 per cent of the territory under Indian control and the remainder with Pakistan. In 1957, Kashmir was formally incorporated into the Indian Union. Fighting broke out again in 1965, but a ceasefire was established that September. And Tashkent agreement was signed by the both the countries on January 1, 1966. They resolved to try to end the dispute, but the death of Mr. Shastri and the rise of Gen Yahya Khan in Pakistan resulted in a stalemate.